The DC-10-10 / MD-10-10 (F) and DC-10-30 / MD-10-30 (F) are all variants of the classic DC-10 tri-jet. Primarily used today as a cargo freighter, this plane was once a prominent passenger airliner. It's three engine design allowed bridged the gap between the large 747 and smaller wide-body airplanes of the time like the 767. The decline and demise of the DC-10 as a passenger airliner was as most airplanes, due to the introduction of larger, more fuel efficient, twin engined wide-body aircraft like the A330 and the 777 that could do the same job but at less cost. The DC-10 still flies today as it's high MTOW (Maximum Takeoff Weight) due to it's three engines is ideal for flying as cargo aircraft.
The DC stands for Douglas Corporation the original designer and producer of the airplane. The MD refers to the fact that the airplane has been updated toot have a glass cockpit just like it's cousin the MD-11. The (F) denotes that the airplane is a cargo aircraft or freighter.